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Goa’s history dates 20,000 to 30,000 years, as evidence of ancient rock carvings and tools suggests. After centuries of rule by different regimes (from the Mauryas in the 3rdcentury to the Adil Shahis of Bijapur in the 14th century), it was invaded by a powerful fleet of Portuguese colonizers to secure cargoes of valuable spices, mostly pepper, from the Arab Muslim rulers. The attack in 1510 with the support of local ally Timayya, marked the beginning of 450 years of Portuguese rule in Goa.

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